We determined LD results using LDSC v1

We determined LD results using LDSC v1

To help you guess said variance of PRS towards phenotype, set up a baseline linear relationship together with merely sex and you will significant Pcs because variables was modelled first:

0.0 in 1 centiMorgan windows around 13,307,412 non-singleton variants genotyped in 379 European individuals (CEU, FIN, GBR, IBS and TSI populations) in the phase 1 integrated release of the 1,000 Genomes Project 35 . For regression weights 13 , we restricted LD score calculation to SNPs included in both the GWAS sumap phase 3; for rg estimation in pairs of traits this was the intersection of SNPs for both traits and HapMap. Because population structure and confounding were highly controlled in the ALS summary statistics by the use of mixed linear model association tests, we constrained the LD score regression intercept to 1 for hS 2 estimation in ALS, and we also estimated hS 2 with a free intercept. For hS 2 estimation in all other traits and for rg estimation the intercept was a free parameter. We also estimated rg using ALS meta-analysis results 7 with free and constrained intercepts and with permuted data conserving population structure. Briefly, principal component analysis was carried out for each stratum using smartpca 36 and the three-dimensional space defined by principal components 1–3 was equally subdivided into 1,000 cubes. Within each cube, case–control labels were randomly swapped and association statistics were re-calculated for the entire stratum using logistic regression. Study-level P-values were then calculated using inverse variance weighted fixed effect meta-analysis implemented in METAL 7,12 . hS 2 was estimated for these meta-analysed permuted data using LD score regression (Supplementary Table 1).

Polygenic exposure score data

We calculated PRS for 10,032 cases and 16,627 healthy controls in the ALS dataset (duplicate and suspected or confirmed related samples with the schizophrenia dataset removed), based on schizophrenia-associated alleles and effect sizes reported in the GWAS summary statistics for 6,843,674 SNPs included in both studies and in the phase 1 integrated release of the 1,000 Genomes Project 35 (imputation INFO score <0.3; minor allele frequency <0.01; A/T and G/C SNPs removed). SNPs were clumped in two rounds (physical distance threshold of 250 kb and a LD threshold (R 2 ) of>0.5 in the first round and a distance of 5,000 kb and LD threshold of >0.2 in the second round) using PLINK v1.90b3y, removing high-LD regions (Supplementary Table 4), resulting in a final set of 496,548 SNPs for PRS calculations. Odds ratios for autosomal SNPs reported in the schizophrenia summary statistics were log-converted to beta values and PRS were calculated using PLINK’s score function for twelve schizophrenia GWAS P-value thresholds (PT): 5 ? 10 ?8 , 5 ? 10 ?7 , 5 ? 10 ?6 , 5 ? 10 ?5 , 5 ? 10 ?4 , 5 ? 10 ?3 , 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5. A total of 100 principal components Montreal best hookup apps (PCs) were generated for the ALS sample using GCTA version 1.24.4. Using R version 3.2.2, a generalized linear model was applied to model the phenotype of individuals in the ALS dataset. PCs that had a significant effect on the phenotype (P<0.0005, Bonferroni-corrected for 100 PCs) were selected (PCs 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 36, 49).

where y is the phenotype regarding ALS dataset, ? is the intercept of one’s model which have a mountain ? for every single changeable x.

An excellent Nagelkerke Roentgen 2 worth is actually acquired for every single design and you can new baseline Nagelkerke Roentgen 2 worthy of was deducted, leading to good ? said variance that relates to the new contribution out of schizophrenia-built PRS for the phenotype in the ALS dataset. PRS investigation was also did for the permuted circumstances–manage analysis (1,000 permutations, preserving case–handle ratio) to assess perhaps the increased ? informed me difference are a real laws associated with the phenotype. ? explained variances and you may P-beliefs was averaged across the permutation analyses.